The gold foil corneal electrode (GFE) described by Arden et al in 1979 (Arden GB, Carter RM, Hogg CR, Seigel M and Margolis S. A gold foil electrode, extending the horizons for clinical ophthalmology.Vis. Sci. 1979, 18: 421-426.)  has been one of the leading electrodes for clinical and research recordings of all modes of electroretinography since.

Its major advantages over many other corneal electrodes include a high level of patient comfort, ease of application and a high level of signal integrity.  As there is no interference with the optical pathway the electrode is ideal for pattern recordings.


The electrode consists of a thin mylar substrate onto which a layer of high purity gold is deposited, the layer of gold forming the recording surface. Attached to this film is a 100cm length of fine (30awg) silver coated copper wire.


The fitting technique is described in the “care and use” section.

Illustrations of a fitted electrode are shown below.